A Brief History of AI (Part 2)

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Vol. 17 // 2021

Image Sources: wikipedia.org | commons.wikimedia.org

TIMELINE 1986-2020

PART-2

1986

Mercedes-Benz van is the first driverless car that drives up to 55 mph clear roads. It was built under the supervision of Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificialintelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_self-driving_cars#:~:text=to%20mid%201970s.-,1980s,h)%20on%20streets%20without%20traffic

1987

In the keynote speech of John Sculley, Apple CEO at Educom, a video named Knowledge Navigator shows the future in which smart agents would access the knowledge applications that connect massive digital information.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificialintelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Sculley

1988

Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems was published by Judea Pearl. This work transformed the field of Artificial Intelligence and many other branches of natural sciences and engineering.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificialintelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://books.google.com.pk/books/about/Probabilistic_Reasoning_in_Intelligent_S.html?id=AvNID7LyMusC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&hl=en&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

1988

Jabberwacky, a live chatbot is developed by Rollo Carpenter that simulates the natural human chat in a very entertaining, interesting, and humorous manner.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificialintelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
http://loebner03.hamill.co.uk/images/photos/
vladimirrolloandfred.jpg

1989

Yann LeCun with some other researchers at AT&T Bell Labs innovated a multi-layer neural network with a backpropagation algorithm and recognized the handwritten ZIP codes successfully.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificialintelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yann_LeCun

1993

In “The Coming Technological Singularity” published by Vernor Vinge, it is said that the technology will revolutionize within thirty years that it will create superhuman intelligence.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernor_Vinge

1997

Jurgen Schmidhuber and Sepp Hochreiter proposed Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) which is a recurrent neural network used in speech recognition and handwriting analysis.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_short-term_memory

1997

Deep Blue is the first chess-playing program that beats the top world chess champion.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer)

1998

Caleb Chung and Dave Hampton created the first pet robot, Furby.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furby

1998

Yann LeCun and other researchers published papers on the applications of neural networks in backpropagation optimization and handwriting recognition.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoshua_Bengio

2000

Cynthia Breazeal at MIT developed a robot named Kismet that simulates and recognizes emotions.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kismet_(robot)

2000

ASIMO AI robot of Honda is developed that can walk at the speed of humans and carries trays to the customers in a restaurant.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=-Honda%E2%80%99s+ASIMO+AI+robot+&tit-le=Special%3ASearch&go=Go&ns0=1

2001

Steven Spielberg’s film, A.I. Artificial Intelligence was released that exhibits a childlike android that has the ability to love.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A.I._Artificial_Intelligence

2006

Michele Banko, Michael Cafarella, and Oren Etzioni coined a term, “machine reading” that defines it as an unsupervised and autonomous understanding of the text.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oren_Etzioni

2009

Google started working on a driverless car that later 2014 became the first one to pass the self-driving test of U.S. state.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waymo

2009

Stats Monkey was developed by the Intelligent Information Laboratory of Northwestern University. It writes sport news without human intervention.

Source: wbur.org
https://www.wbur.org/npr/122424166/story.php

2010

Kinect was launched by Microsoft for Xbox 360. It is a gaming device that tracks the movement of the human body.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinect

2011

A natural language question-answering computer was developed named Watson that defeated two former champions.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Watson

2011

Apple Siri, a smartphone app was released that uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to give recommendations and perform actions.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siri

2013

Robot HRP-2 by SCHAFT defeated 15 teams and won the DARPA Robotics Challenge Trials.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://achievements.ai/timeline/hrp-2-ro-bot-won-darpas-robotics-challenge/

2013

Never Ending Image Learner (NEIL) was released at Carnegie Mellon University that analyzes correlations between images.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://computervisiononline.com/blog/never-en-ding-image-learner

2013

SparkCognition, the world’s first infrastructure-focused AI company, is incorporated in Austin, Texas

Source: sparkcognition.com
https://www.sparkcognition.com/about/company/

2016

Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo program defeated South Korean Go grandmaster Lee Sedol.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AlphaGo_versus_Lee_Sedol

2017

The Sentient Machine by Amir Husain, a book that elaborates the future of AI is published.

Source: https://www.amazon.com/Sentient-Machine-Co-ming-Artificial-Intelligence/dp/1501144685/

2017

Deepstack, an AI-based algorithm beat human players at heads-up no-limit hold’em poker.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.01724.pdf

2017

An OpenAI-machine-learned bot won a can1v1 demo game at The International 2017 Dota 2 tournament against professional Dota 2 player Dendi.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendi_(gamer)

2018

Google Duplex was launched, a service where AI assistant books appointments over the phone in a flawless human voice.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://ai.googleblog.com/

2020

GPT-3, an autoregressive language model was released by OpenAI. It uses deep learning to produce human-like text in multiple languages.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/
gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/?sh=454ecb476fba
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPT-3